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Complete Parts and Function of Computer Keyboard


Parts and Functions of the Motherboard

Complete Parts of Motherboard

Just study this if you want to pass the exam: The computer Motherboard or shortly MOBO is one of the most important parts of the Personal computer (PC). It is the hardware of the computer installed inside the system unit(CPU).This MOBO hardware act as the mainboard or the central or core assembly of the computer system unit. In other words inside of the CPU case, there are a lot of other hardware's connected to the MOBO, namely: Hard Disk Drive(HDD), CD/DVD ROM, USB Card reader, FDD Drive, processor, RAM, LAN card, Wireless LAN Card, USB expansion board, VGA Card, and the Power Supply Unit(PSU). These are all types of hardware inside the system unit of the Personal Computer.

Computer motherboards designed to take advantage of the most demanding application of a program. One of the most applications is to meet the system requirements of the 3G application. Just like movie games as high innovative applications of computer programming.As the form factor of the motherboard as a series of versions of the MOBO from AT, ATX, BTX, LPX, and NLPX.Compatible words being broadcast, that's why it is the MOBO will synchronize the speed of the processor, RAM, and Video Card(VGA). Unlike only if the MOBO is built-in through the Input/Output ports.

So, let's talk about the Motherboard parts and function to enable you to familiarize the parts and function. This is the most practical approach of the technician. (See the picture above).


1. I/O ports- this is located in the rear panel of the CPU, this use to connect the outside hardware or peripherals of the computer.
  • PS/2 ports- these are used to connect the mouse(green color)and the keyboard(purple color)
  • DB 25 female connector(printer port)-this is used to connect the impact printer, one of that the DOT MATRIX printer, ex. the Epson LX 300 +
  • DB 9 male connector(Serial or com1 port)-this use to connect a serial device of the computer, such as the serial mouse and external modem.
  • VGA port(built-in)- this is used to interface the DB cord of the monitor screen or to connect the monitor screen of the computer. The fastest video card versions are base on the standard of the VGA slots, ex: the AGP and PCIe card.
  • USB 2.0 × 2 ports- these are the ports of the USB devices of the computer. Attached externally of the system unit, one of that is the USB flash drive. As of now the versions or speed of the USB are 1.0 and 2.0 compatible.
  •  LAN port- this called a Local Area Network of the computer. This is used to connect the numbers of nodes or workstations(PC)to form a local area network of the computer within their area. Using a type of communication media such as the network switch and router.
  • Audio Port- this is used to connect the speaker, mic, and MIDI(Musical Instrument Digital Interface) device of the computer
2. ATX Power connector(4 pins)- this is used to connect the 4 pins of the power supply unit(PSU). This is separate from the 20 or 24 pins of ATX power supply to provide DC voltage of the computer processor.
3.  The processor’s ZIF Socket- part of MOBO use to hold the processor or CPU chip(Zero Insertion Force). The compatibility of the socket depends on the computer processor type. Such as the AM2 socket of the AMD and the socket 775 of the Intel company.
4. Memory slot(DIMM)- this is called a Dual Inline Memory Module, this is the slot of computer memory or what we called RAM.The memory slot depends on the type of memory. Such as the PC 133 SDRAM and PC 400 SDRAM-DDR 1.
5. ATX Power connector(24 or 28 pins)- a group of the connector of the MOBO, This is separate of the 4 pin power assignments. It provides a DC power output to the system board(SB)from the output of the Power Supply Unit.
6. Name of the Vendor- this is the manufacturer's name. This is important to know the manufacturer or vendor. So you can download through the internet site the driver's software of the MOBO.
7. CMOS/BIOS BATTERY- In this part, the CMOS/BIOS battery holds, so that it can provide 3 volts direct current/voltage to the CMOS IC to preserve the BIOS settings of the computer. Such as the time module, hardware information, and settings/parameter, etc.
  • CMOS-Complimentary Metal Oxide Semiconductor
  • BIOS- Basic Input/Output System. Is a set of a program stored in CMOS IC, use to preserved the BIOS configuration of the computer
  • CMOS BATTERY PART NUMBER- lithium dry cell CR 2032 3 volts
8. IDE connector(Integrated Drive Electronics)- this connector is used to connect the IDE cable of the HDD(Hard Disk Drive) or CD/DVD ROM to the MotherBoard IDE.
9. Front panel connectors(F-Panel)- this is used to connect the Power LED, HDD LED, Power Switch, and Reset switch of the computer system unit(CPU).
10. SATA connector-this is a Serial Advanced Technology Attachment. The new standard of the IDE connection array of the computer HDD(SATA HDD)to the motherboard system.
11. CMOS/BIOS jumper- this is used to disable the BIOS default setup.Such as to disabled the supervisor password of the BIOS.


  • Turn off CPU
  • change jumper to clear
  • remove the CMOS battery
  • reinsert the BIOS battery
  • change jumper to normal
  • power up computer
  • press “del” or “F2” to enter BIOS setup
12. USB connector(header)- this is used to connect the USB port of the front panel USB 2.0 x 2 port.
13. FDD connector- the connector of the FDD cable through the system board. Normally there are 34 pins out of it to connect the 3.5” 1.44MB Floppy Disk Drive.
14. PCI slots- a part of the computer motherboard use to connect the I/O cards of the computer.Such as LAN card, WIFI card, USB expansion card, and sound card.
15. Motherboard Version number- here you can get the version of the motherboard driver software. So that you can download it exactly to the manufacturer's website.
16. CMOS/BIOS IC- this is the type of BIOS IC being used by the computer MOBO. A set of a program being installed in this IC to preserved the BIOS configuration settings of the computer.Such as the speed of the CPU chip and RAM, etc.
17. AMR slot- this is the AUDIO Modem Riser. Being used to demodulate and modulate the analog audio of the computer.
18. PCI express slot- a part of the computer that holds the computer video card(VGA), the PCIe card.The latest and the fastest card being installed and most compatible with 3d and 4g gaming of the computer. The old video card type is the AGP or Accelerated Graphic Ports and the standard of the PCIe.
19. North Bridge IC- is a passion name as being north of the PCI buses or the PCI slots of the MOBO. The true name of the northbridge is MCI or Memory Controller Hub. Assigned to manage and control the computer memory before the processing of the CPU chip.
20. SouthBridge IC-is a passion name as being south of the PCI buses or PCI slots. The true name of the southbridge is I/O Controller HUB(ICH). It is a type of microchip task to control all the Input and output devices of the computer. Such as the keyboard and mouse. And the monitor screen of the computer, that commonly found at the rear back of the CPU or system unit. 

The computer motherboard is the mainboard, all the connections of the computer connected to these components. As you're computer technicians you need to memorize all the parts needed here. This is very important when you taking up your TESDA exams or whenever you need parts for the replacement of electronic parts of your customer's motherboard.

See you in the next post.

How To Recover Windows Files Damage By A Viruses

 Recover Windows Files Damage By Viruses
The number one and most headache problem of computer files are penetrated with the word VIRUS.The word VIRUS in computer terms is what we called the Vital Information Resource Under Seize.Is a type of a computer files created by the experts of the computer with the tricks to ruin or destroy the systems of computer.From single computer to network of computer.

Our computer windows equipped with a virus scanner.The technicians and other experts after installing the windows Operating System.They installed also the virus scanner to detect and protect the system of our computer,or what we called prevention system.But because the virus scanner also have a price, what I mean is, “we will pay the price according to the subscription”.Therefore our technicians they installed the free editions of the virus scanner.This type of edition of virus scanner need our attentions,in other terms if we are the technicians assign to a certain company you need to perform the maintenance of the computer system.So,one of that responsibility is to update and check the virus scanner if they update the virus definitions in every falling and rising of the system clock.So that the system of computer is safe and protected.We will need to update the virus scanner manually or using the internet in the server of the manufacturer.

The main reason why our computer is penetrated with the infectious virus.Because we don't maintain our computer softwares by running the virus scan and updating it to the servers of the internet.

So. therefore the main purpose of this post is to teach you how to recover the windows if our computer files are penetrated with the virus.Remember if the virus is penetrate to the system of the computer.You cannot reinstalled again the virus scanner and update or running a virus scan.You will cause a complex problem of your computer systems in any applications.But don’t worry you can recover your windows files using the other way or procedure using the Virus scanner recovery system.One of the most effective and most workable virus scanner is the AVIRA.
So,just follow this steps:
  1. If your computer can access of the internet just open your browser and go to the AVIRA website.(You can click the Bold AVIRA)
  2. And download the AVIRA Recovery System,or just click this link:Avira AntiVir Recovery System
  3. Once you downloaded the file,you need to burn the file in a CD or compact disk.By double clicking the AVIRA downloaded file or the icon of it.
  4. After you double click,the computer will response by displaying a small window or a window wizard.
  5. Now click the run button
  6. A another popup windows again with the drive destination of your CD/DVD burner
  7. Now insert your CD/DVD ROM
  8. And click the burn cd button
  9. And you will see the progressive windows inside the popup window,just wait in a moment to finish the burning
  10. Once it finished,the file now are inside the CD/DVD and it is now bootable
  11. Now just restart your computer,the problem is how to first boot the bootable AVIRA recovery system.Because this file will work and scan during the boot process not on the windows desktop or the windowing environment.
  12. Now once your computer restarted,in POST just press either “del” or “F2” key of your keyboard to enter the BIOS configuration.Just read your POST information how to enter bios setup.
  13. Now in BIOS program,just find the BOOT menu
  14. Inside the BOOT menu features,just select boot sequence or first boot.
  15. Now check whether the CD/DVD drive is position as 1.If not use either +- or page up page down of your keyboard to assign the CD/DVD drive as first boot.
  16. Now insert your AVIRA Recovery system bootable cd
  17. Use escape key if necessary
  18. Press F10 of your keyboard to save the BIOS settings
  19. They Enter key as Yes or Ok
  20. Your computer will display again the POST]
  21. Now press any key to boot strap your CD/DVD drive
  22. Now you will see in the screen the process of using the DOS Mode(Disk Operating System)
  23. If as to select press 1 of your keyboard
  24. And follow the screen instructions very carefully.


  • If your computer penetrated with virus scanner and if this procedure will not solve. Your computer is subject for formatting. Its better to format rather than to repeat again the troubleshooting of OS.
  • Be sure to backup first your computer before to format your HDD.
  • Be sure to backup device drivers if your have no other source of the drivers.

Simple Grading System Using MS-Excel 2007


This simple grading system I’ve created its just a worksheet sample for this post.If I’m right,the Philippine teachers of elementary and high school have a new set of grading system.Because of the new education system, the K+12.But this only a guide or a content reference if ever they need a sample.Or to the student teachers needed of this as their sample for the ranking exam, or to the literacy students of computer.Both basic and common as they start of learning of the application of MS-OFFICE.

Now, how to create this?its just a simple.I already posted how to create worksheets and format it accordingly.Such as,how to format the label,pattern,merging and etc.Meaning,you need to create a worksheets with complete component.Or create your grading system worksheets with complete part of the worksheet table.Just like, how I created the picture I’ve posted in this blog post.You need to create the worksheet title above,worksheet table with complete multiple merging of label using the format menu,and just enter the worksheet data accordingly.(see the picture).

To make it simple and you will understand carefully the worksheet.I’ve just put an autoshapes for the instruction inside and name of the logical data subject for logical operation.
1. Equivalent or EQ= this is how to calculate the equivalent of the total quizzes of the student base of the given transmutation system.The logical formula is just like this:
=sum((30/30)*d11+65), where 30 and 65 are constant and the other divisor 30 is the total number of items to be multiplied to the score of the students       

2. Grades base by percentage level= these are the averages grades base of the prelim period,midterm period,and final.Base of the percentage given value.

=((F11*.30)+(L11*.30)+(R11*.30)), where f11,l11,and r11 are added as the reference data and multiplied approximately to the percentage given value.

3. Final Grade= these are the sum of the average exam,average quiz,average project,and oral and divided by itself.
=sum(T11:w11)/4, where t11 is the 1st reference data and w11 is the last reference data added and divide by itself.
4. Status of the Students= these are the standing of the students of the class base of there final grades.How to get this using the logical multiple if.
Note: “use the autofill bar to automatically calculate the logical data after you input the logical formula”


CREATE SIMPLE MAGAZINE USING MS-WORD 2007 footer partUsing Microsoft Word 2007 we can create a simple magazine Before I posted the different parts of the MS-WORD both 2003 and 2007. Now I will teach you how to create a simple magazine using the different application of the MS-Word.You need only a small knowledge in how to use this application.

I just posted a two part of the image on the left,one is the top portion of the document I crated and the other one is the bottom.So that you will enable to distinguish the two parts of the applications, both the header and footer.

In this application,I used to prepare the document template by setting up a margin using the page layout menu.For the margin,paper size,and the paper orientation of the template.I used to select the portrait under the Margin Menu of the Dialogue box(current window).And I used the paper size letter or the 8.5” x 11” or the short paper.So easy for you to identify the different applications I’ve been created.And I used a callouts pointing to the applications.

So lets talk it one by one.

1. Document Header- normally position on the top of the document.How to apply this in your document.Just follow this simple steps:
  • click insert menu
  • click header button( position of the left of the bar,name header and footer)
  • Select of the list of styles, ex:Austere odd page
  • now you will see header of the top of the document
  • then type your tag line or the insert a logo or name of the company if necessary
2. Document footer- normally position on the bottom of the document.How to apply this:
  • click insert menu
  • click footer button( position of the left of the bar,name header and footer)
  • Select of the list of styles, ex:Austere odd page
  • now you will see footer on the bottom of the document ]
  • then type your sentence or a short information or an address,email,and telephone number
3. Document title- I use to apply the borders both the top and bottom.How to apply:
  • highlight first the title(be sure to highlight exactly)
  • click Home menu
  • click the drop/down bar of the border button under the paragraph toolbar
  • then the bar will customize
  • click borders and shading position below
  • a dialogue box will appear
  • select you line style(be sure that you are using the tab menu button borders
  • apply thickness or width by clicking the drop down bar
  • then click the imaginary boxes both top and bottom under the preview on the right
  • click drop down bar and select paragraph
  • now click ok button
4. Apply paragraph columns- this application will apply on the entire paragraph of the document and how to apply this.
  • highlight first the entire paragraph(be sure to highlight exactly until only the last period of the last paragraph)
  • click page layout menu
  • click columns button under the page setup bar
  • click more columns
  • dialogue box will appear
  • select preset 3 or else(a box with imaginary line)
  • check box line between, if necessary you need
  • now click ok button
5. Page border- this is the border squared in the entire document template.How to apply this
  • click the drop/down bar of the border button under the paragraph toolbar
  • then the bar will customize
  • click borders and shading position below
  • a dialogue box will appear
  • click the page border tab menu button
  • select a line style or click the drop down bar of the art
  • select your style
  • then you will see it will apply automatically on the preview(right side)
  • be sure to apply in the whole document
  • click options button
  • another dialogue box will appear
  • set margin both top,bottom,left and right(this is used to fitted very well the page border on the document template so that it will not cut during printing)
  • then uncheck all the options below
  • click ok button
  • then click ok button of the dialogue box
6. Drop capital letter- this is the drop cap application commonly found at the first word of the first paragraph of a news paper or magazine.How to apply this:
  • highlight the first paragraph(be sure to highlight exactly)
  • click insert menu toolbar
  • click drop cap button under the text toolbar
  • click and select drop cap options
  • a dialogue box will appear
  • select a drop position or else(a box with an imaginary line)
  • select font style,ex: arial
  • set lines to drop,ex: 4
  • then distance from text,ex: .2”
  • click ok button
7. Insert clip Art or picture using from file- this is the application use to insert a picture or clip Art for your document:How to apply this and there are two ways:
  1. Using a clip art and how
  • click insert menu tool bar
  • click clip art button under the illustrations toolbar
  • then a right side bar will appear on your  window
  • and use the search for bar to find your clip art fitted to your document thought
  • click go button
  • the clip arts will appear on the bottom of right side bar base of the category you want
  • once you select and click, it will apply automatically in your document template
  • format your clip art by right clicking it
  • point to text wrapping
  • then select the wrapping style of your clip Art
  • then drag your clip clip if necessary to arrange it formally
     2. Using the from file button
  • click insert menu tool bar
  • click picture button under the illustrations toolbar
  • a destination windows or a source window will appear
  • use drop down bar of the look in, so that you will enable to open the drive where the picture stored,ex: in the picture folder under the my documents folder icon
  • then select and click you picture
  • then click insert button below
  • then it will apply it in document template
  • format your picture same as stated above

About the Desktop Basic Parts and Functions

About The Desktop
One of the most and important part of the computer Operating System is the Windows Desktop.Windows Desktop act as the most top of the hierarchy of the Operating System(OS).Meaning, this is the part of the windows where the user start to work or use any one of the program,ex: opening one of the program of the MS-office.

So, therefore this is the area of the screen where the user work .And Windows Desktop composed of small icons or pictures represents as shortcut of the  program.Therefore,using the computer as part of the most basic of the computer windows operation.Let’s talk about the part of the desktop.

1. Desktop Icons- these are the group of small pictures commonly located at the left portion of the desktop.The function of the windows desktop icons, act as a shortcut of the programs of the computer.Including the desktop folders,you can create a folder or store a files inside the folder or what we called Folder icons.

2. Desktop Background- this is the view of the desktop or commonly called as wallpaper once you installed your own favorite pictures.You can install a wallpaper by double clicking your own picture and right click on it then click set as desktop background.Or right click on the blank of the desktop, then click properties,select either desktop background or themes.
3. Mouse Cursor- act as the pointer of the desktop to select a program or selecting a computer command.
4. Start Button or Start Menu- this is the part of the desktop that commonly located at the bottom left of the windows desktop.And one of the part of the taskbar.Act as the opening button that you can customize a program to open.This will function to the windows key (the center of the CTRL and ALT key)of your keyboard once you press.
5. Quick Lunch- this is also an icons or small pictures same as desktop icons if installed in your taskbar.The difference between this two parts,you can open the quick lunch icons by single click of your mouse.But meanwhile, the desktop icons is double click.
6. Taskbar- this is located at the bottom of the windows desktop.That are composed of three parts,the start button,quick lunch,and the notification area.One of the function of the taskbar is to hide a running current programs of the computer.
7. Notification Area- located at the bottom right of the windows desktop taskbar.These are also a group of icons as shortcut of the program.The common icons in this part are, the virus scanner icon that if you right click on it you can update and run your virus scanner.And the date and time of your computer and the speaker icon.You can use this icon using the right click of your mouse.Example in updating your date and time.