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NC2 Technician Safety Precautions

NC2 Technician Safety Precautions
Security Guards, law inforcers, and or military have a general orders,or what I’ve known is the 11 General orders(11 GO).Technicians or computer technicians have also of this orders.We do our best to performed our duties and obligations.But on the technicians will dealing on the most valuable and very expensive gadgets and appliances of the evolution of electronics.In other part, the technicians will dealing with the most dangerous object that may cause harm or cause other to die instantly.Or we the cause of the permanent damage of our computer or gadgets.Because of no protections and negligence or underestimating the situation.

So this is my fellow men and women of this most demanded skills.Equip and inculcate this in our mind.So that when we are in bottle field,you will protected and you will know your tour of duties or our obligations through the units we perform.

1. Unplug and power off machine or else the computer or loptop
2. Use rubber mat during repair or installation and or assembling the unit.
3. Use or prepare proper tools
4. Work in well lighted and spacious area
5. Avoid liquid spills
6. Discharge static electricity in our body(ground yourself)
7. Remove all loose metal form of our body,such as. jewelries, etc.
8. Use/Read instructional manual
9. Use anti static wristband
10. Work in well ventilated working areas
11. Handle diligently the hardwares of computer or machines and do not hold directly the microchips.

These are all what I know and base of what I learned and experience through teaching and troubleshooting machines and PC or a gadgets.Remember technicians," we do our leaving here in this professions,be honest and straight to our duties and obligations”.

Dual Boot Operating System Windows Xp and Windows 7

Dual Boot Win 7 and Xp
Dual boot system is installation of two operating system of computer installed in different partitions.The lower versions will installed in drive c: and the higher version will installed in drive d:.Why we installed two operating system of computer?there many circumstances,such as, you need the lower operating system so that the program you need will run or compatible only with winxp version.Another is you need the higher version of win 7 so that you can run the program in which compatible also with the win 7 versions.Another circumstances, when the other operating will break down because of a virus and user error you have reserved operating that you can use.

But installing this two operating system,we will also considered the advantages and disadvantages of both sides.Example,consider that you successfully installed the dual boot system,and you select the win xp during boot strap.Then you open the file came from the win 7 compatible program.But you cannot open it and saw that file when you open the storage folder.The big reason is, that file is higher than the lower versions of operating system you used.But the advantages is, when you select the win 7 as your operating system you can easily and manage the program came from the operating system win xp.Because the win 7 application is higher version compare to the win xp.

Now,how to install  this two operating system,just follow this steps.You need also to consider your computer is high speed.That can carried the two operating system files.I will consider also that you have experience in installing the two operating system’s versions.

Suppose that you have now the two operating system mention above and your cpu have a cd/dvd drive installed.Install first the winxp in partition 1 and install the win 7 in partition 2 after you successfully installed the win xp.
  1. Power up your computer
  2. Enter the bios setup during POST(Press “DEl” or “F2” key)
  3. Now,change the boot sequence or drive priority.Besure that the cd/dvd rom is the first boot.Check also the main bios menu,if your HDD is present during boot sequence.
  4. Put your CD/DVD winxp installer disk in the CD/DVD drive
  5. Press F10 to save your BIOS configuration settings
  6. Press “y” as yes and press enter key
  7. Once the POST initialized the settings,Press spacebar or any key to boot strap the start up file of win xp operating system.
  8. Once initialized wait until all system is intact and ready for partition
  9. Then you will prompted in 3 options,just press enter key.Just follow the instruction of the screen and if you as to accept the agreement just press “F8” to accept.
  10. Now you are going to delete the old partition of your HDD.Be sure that you backup your important file before to do so.All the content of your HDD will vanished after you delete the partition.
  11. Consider that your hard drive is high capacity even 500 GB or 1 Tb to assure that your installation with the other programs is suitable for space.Both the programs of winxp compatible and win 7.
  12. Now delete the partition,just follow the instruction of the screen how to delete.Just press D as delete partition and press L to continue if ask.
  13. Just proceed to delete the second partition.Just repeat the procedure how you delete the 1st partition.
  14. Now,once all the partition is deleted,create the new partition.Create three partition as necessary for winxp, win7, and the drive for your data.Just follow the onscreen instruction.Just press “C” as create and define your bytes capacity for first partition.And proceed for second partition and define the bytes capacity.Now on the third partition as remaining,just press enter key to finish partition.
  15. Once your partition is complete,proceed for the formatting of your first partition for the winxp windows files.Just select the NTFS as your filling system and press enter key to proceed for formatting.
  16. Now,wait for 100% progressive indicator,and it will proceed to copy the windows file after formatting.
  17. Once the copying of files finished,your computer will restart and it will start setup of windows xp files.
  18. Just follow the onscreen instruction.If you ask to install the product key.Just type it in the text bar provided in the windows setup and proceed.
  19. After the windows setup is successful and you will prompted in desktop.Just restart your computer and put your CD/DVD win7 installer to boot strap the startup files during POST.
  20. Now the installation will initialized the system,once prompted in options just select to install the windows.
  21. Just follow the onscreen instruction on it.
  22. Once prompted in selection of partition,select drive D: or partition 2 where you installed the windows seven.
  23. Just select format to ready the drive to receive the windows 7 files.
  24. After formatting it will continue for setup the windows and initialized all the systems functions.
  25. Just follow onscreen instruction when ask.
  26. Once the windows installation ask for product key just type it in the installation bar.
  27. Once prompted in the windows desktop,your successful for your dual boot system installation.
  28. Proceed for the installation of all drivers of your hardware and software you need in your computer.


  • In dual boot system be sure that your computer processor and its compatibility is capable to run the two operating system.
  • Your computer it must be dual core compatible or higher.
  • Be sure that your HDD has a high capacity, it must be  120 GB or higher.
  • You must to backup important files before to proceed.
  • It must be three partitions if your in the create partition during installation.

Parts and Functions of the Motherboard

Complete Parts of Motherboard

Just study this if you want to pass the exam: The computer Motherboard or shortly MOBO is one of the most important parts of the Personal computer (PC). It is the hardware of the computer installed inside the system unit(CPU).This MOBO hardware act as the mainboard or the central or core assembly of the computer system unit. In other words inside of the CPU case, there are a lot of other hardware's connected to the MOBO, namely: Hard Disk Drive(HDD), CD/DVD ROM, USB Card reader, FDD Drive, processor, RAM, LAN card, Wireless LAN Card, USB expansion board, VGA Card, and the Power Supply Unit(PSU). These are all types of hardware inside the system unit of the Personal Computer.

Computer motherboards designed to take advantage of the most demanding application of a program. One of the most applications is to meet the system requirements of the 3G application. Just like movie games as high innovative applications of computer programming.As the form factor of the motherboard as a series of versions of the MOBO from AT, ATX, BTX, LPX, and NLPX.Compatible words being broadcast, that's why it is the MOBO will synchronize the speed of the processor, RAM, and Video Card(VGA). Unlike only if the MOBO is built-in through the Input/Output ports.

So, let's talk about the Motherboard parts and function to enable you to familiarize the parts and function. This is the most practical approach of the technician. (See the picture above).


1. I/O ports- this is located in the rear panel of the CPU, this use to connect the outside hardware or peripherals of the computer.
  • PS/2 ports- these are used to connect the mouse(green color)and the keyboard(purple color)
  • DB 25 female connector(printer port)-this is used to connect the impact printer, one of that the DOT MATRIX printer, ex. the Epson LX 300 +
  • DB 9 male connector(Serial or com1 port)-this use to connect a serial device of the computer, such as the serial mouse and external modem.
  • VGA port(built-in)- this is used to interface the DB cord of the monitor screen or to connect the monitor screen of the computer. The fastest video card versions are base on the standard of the VGA slots, ex: the AGP and PCIe card.
  • USB 2.0 × 2 ports- these are the ports of the USB devices of the computer. Attached externally of the system unit, one of that is the USB flash drive. As of now the versions or speed of the USB are 1.0 and 2.0 compatible.
  •  LAN port- this called a Local Area Network of the computer. This is used to connect the numbers of nodes or workstations(PC)to form a local area network of the computer within their area. Using a type of communication media such as the network switch and router.
  • Audio Port- this is used to connect the speaker, mic, and MIDI(Musical Instrument Digital Interface) device of the computer
2. ATX Power connector(4 pins)- this is used to connect the 4 pins of the power supply unit(PSU). This is separate from the 20 or 24 pins of ATX power supply to provide DC voltage of the computer processor.
3.  The processor’s ZIF Socket- part of MOBO use to hold the processor or CPU chip(Zero Insertion Force). The compatibility of the socket depends on the computer processor type. Such as the AM2 socket of the AMD and the socket 775 of the Intel company.
4. Memory slot(DIMM)- this is called a Dual Inline Memory Module, this is the slot of computer memory or what we called RAM.The memory slot depends on the type of memory. Such as the PC 133 SDRAM and PC 400 SDRAM-DDR 1.
5. ATX Power connector(24 or 28 pins)- a group of the connector of the MOBO, This is separate of the 4 pin power assignments. It provides a DC power output to the system board(SB)from the output of the Power Supply Unit.
6. Name of the Vendor- this is the manufacturer's name. This is important to know the manufacturer or vendor. So you can download through the internet site the driver's software of the MOBO.
7. CMOS/BIOS BATTERY- In this part, the CMOS/BIOS battery holds, so that it can provide 3 volts direct current/voltage to the CMOS IC to preserve the BIOS settings of the computer. Such as the time module, hardware information, and settings/parameter, etc.
  • CMOS-Complimentary Metal Oxide Semiconductor
  • BIOS- Basic Input/Output System. Is a set of a program stored in CMOS IC, use to preserved the BIOS configuration of the computer
  • CMOS BATTERY PART NUMBER- lithium dry cell CR 2032 3 volts
8. IDE connector(Integrated Drive Electronics)- this connector is used to connect the IDE cable of the HDD(Hard Disk Drive) or CD/DVD ROM to the MotherBoard IDE.
9. Front panel connectors(F-Panel)- this is used to connect the Power LED, HDD LED, Power Switch, and Reset switch of the computer system unit(CPU).
10. SATA connector-this is a Serial Advanced Technology Attachment. The new standard of the IDE connection array of the computer HDD(SATA HDD)to the motherboard system.
11. CMOS/BIOS jumper- this is used to disable the BIOS default setup.Such as to disabled the supervisor password of the BIOS.


  • Turn off CPU
  • change jumper to clear
  • remove the CMOS battery
  • reinsert the BIOS battery
  • change jumper to normal
  • power up computer
  • press “del” or “F2” to enter BIOS setup
12. USB connector(header)- this is used to connect the USB port of the front panel USB 2.0 x 2 port.
13. FDD connector- the connector of the FDD cable through the system board. Normally there are 34 pins out of it to connect the 3.5” 1.44MB Floppy Disk Drive.
14. PCI slots- a part of the computer motherboard use to connect the I/O cards of the computer.Such as LAN card, WIFI card, USB expansion card, and sound card.
15. Motherboard Version number- here you can get the version of the motherboard driver software. So that you can download it exactly to the manufacturer's website.
16. CMOS/BIOS IC- this is the type of BIOS IC being used by the computer MOBO. A set of a program being installed in this IC to preserved the BIOS configuration settings of the computer.Such as the speed of the CPU chip and RAM, etc.
17. AMR slot- this is the AUDIO Modem Riser. Being used to demodulate and modulate the analog audio of the computer.
18. PCI express slot- a part of the computer that holds the computer video card(VGA), the PCIe card.The latest and the fastest card being installed and most compatible with 3d and 4g gaming of the computer. The old video card type is the AGP or Accelerated Graphic Ports and the standard of the PCIe.
19. North Bridge IC- is a passion name as being north of the PCI buses or the PCI slots of the MOBO. The true name of the northbridge is MCI or Memory Controller Hub. Assigned to manage and control the computer memory before the processing of the CPU chip.
20. SouthBridge IC-is a passion name as being south of the PCI buses or PCI slots. The true name of the southbridge is I/O Controller HUB(ICH). It is a type of microchip task to control all the Input and output devices of the computer. Such as the keyboard and mouse. And the monitor screen of the computer, that commonly found at the rear back of the CPU or system unit. 

The computer motherboard is the mainboard, all the connections of the computer connected to these components. As you're computer technicians you need to memorize all the parts needed here. This is very important when you taking up your TESDA exams or whenever you need parts for the replacement of electronic parts of your customer's motherboard.

See you in the next post.

How To Recover Windows Files Damage By A Viruses

 Recover Windows Files Damage By Viruses
The number one and most headache problem of computer files are penetrated with the word VIRUS.The word VIRUS in computer terms is what we called the Vital Information Resource Under Seize.Is a type of a computer files created by the experts of the computer with the tricks to ruin or destroy the systems of computer.From single computer to network of computer.

Our computer windows equipped with a virus scanner.The technicians and other experts after installing the windows Operating System.They installed also the virus scanner to detect and protect the system of our computer,or what we called prevention system.But because the virus scanner also have a price, what I mean is, “we will pay the price according to the subscription”.Therefore our technicians they installed the free editions of the virus scanner.This type of edition of virus scanner need our attentions,in other terms if we are the technicians assign to a certain company you need to perform the maintenance of the computer system.So,one of that responsibility is to update and check the virus scanner if they update the virus definitions in every falling and rising of the system clock.So that the system of computer is safe and protected.We will need to update the virus scanner manually or using the internet in the server of the manufacturer.

The main reason why our computer is penetrated with the infectious virus.Because we don't maintain our computer softwares by running the virus scan and updating it to the servers of the internet.

So. therefore the main purpose of this post is to teach you how to recover the windows if our computer files are penetrated with the virus.Remember if the virus is penetrate to the system of the computer.You cannot reinstalled again the virus scanner and update or running a virus scan.You will cause a complex problem of your computer systems in any applications.But don’t worry you can recover your windows files using the other way or procedure using the Virus scanner recovery system.One of the most effective and most workable virus scanner is the AVIRA.
So,just follow this steps:
  1. If your computer can access of the internet just open your browser and go to the AVIRA website.(You can click the Bold AVIRA)
  2. And download the AVIRA Recovery System,or just click this link:Avira AntiVir Recovery System
  3. Once you downloaded the file,you need to burn the file in a CD or compact disk.By double clicking the AVIRA downloaded file or the icon of it.
  4. After you double click,the computer will response by displaying a small window or a window wizard.
  5. Now click the run button
  6. A another popup windows again with the drive destination of your CD/DVD burner
  7. Now insert your CD/DVD ROM
  8. And click the burn cd button
  9. And you will see the progressive windows inside the popup window,just wait in a moment to finish the burning
  10. Once it finished,the file now are inside the CD/DVD and it is now bootable
  11. Now just restart your computer,the problem is how to first boot the bootable AVIRA recovery system.Because this file will work and scan during the boot process not on the windows desktop or the windowing environment.
  12. Now once your computer restarted,in POST just press either “del” or “F2” key of your keyboard to enter the BIOS configuration.Just read your POST information how to enter bios setup.
  13. Now in BIOS program,just find the BOOT menu
  14. Inside the BOOT menu features,just select boot sequence or first boot.
  15. Now check whether the CD/DVD drive is position as 1.If not use either +- or page up page down of your keyboard to assign the CD/DVD drive as first boot.
  16. Now insert your AVIRA Recovery system bootable cd
  17. Use escape key if necessary
  18. Press F10 of your keyboard to save the BIOS settings
  19. They Enter key as Yes or Ok
  20. Your computer will display again the POST]
  21. Now press any key to boot strap your CD/DVD drive
  22. Now you will see in the screen the process of using the DOS Mode(Disk Operating System)
  23. If as to select press 1 of your keyboard
  24. And follow the screen instructions very carefully.


  • If your computer penetrated with virus scanner and if this procedure will not solve. Your computer is subject for formatting. Its better to format rather than to repeat again the troubleshooting of OS.
  • Be sure to backup first your computer before to format your HDD.
  • Be sure to backup device drivers if your have no other source of the drivers.

Simple Grading System Using MS-Excel 2007


This simple grading system I’ve created its just a worksheet sample for this post.If I’m right,the Philippine teachers of elementary and high school have a new set of grading system.Because of the new education system, the K+12.But this only a guide or a content reference if ever they need a sample.Or to the student teachers needed of this as their sample for the ranking exam, or to the literacy students of computer.Both basic and common as they start of learning of the application of MS-OFFICE.

Now, how to create this?its just a simple.I already posted how to create worksheets and format it accordingly.Such as,how to format the label,pattern,merging and etc.Meaning,you need to create a worksheets with complete component.Or create your grading system worksheets with complete part of the worksheet table.Just like, how I created the picture I’ve posted in this blog post.You need to create the worksheet title above,worksheet table with complete multiple merging of label using the format menu,and just enter the worksheet data accordingly.(see the picture).

To make it simple and you will understand carefully the worksheet.I’ve just put an autoshapes for the instruction inside and name of the logical data subject for logical operation.
1. Equivalent or EQ= this is how to calculate the equivalent of the total quizzes of the student base of the given transmutation system.The logical formula is just like this:
=sum((30/30)*d11+65), where 30 and 65 are constant and the other divisor 30 is the total number of items to be multiplied to the score of the students       

2. Grades base by percentage level= these are the averages grades base of the prelim period,midterm period,and final.Base of the percentage given value.

=((F11*.30)+(L11*.30)+(R11*.30)), where f11,l11,and r11 are added as the reference data and multiplied approximately to the percentage given value.

3. Final Grade= these are the sum of the average exam,average quiz,average project,and oral and divided by itself.
=sum(T11:w11)/4, where t11 is the 1st reference data and w11 is the last reference data added and divide by itself.
4. Status of the Students= these are the standing of the students of the class base of there final grades.How to get this using the logical multiple if.
Note: “use the autofill bar to automatically calculate the logical data after you input the logical formula”


CREATE SIMPLE MAGAZINE USING MS-WORD 2007 footer partUsing Microsoft Word 2007 we can create a simple magazine Before I posted the different parts of the MS-WORD both 2003 and 2007. Now I will teach you how to create a simple magazine using the different application of the MS-Word.You need only a small knowledge in how to use this application.

I just posted a two part of the image on the left,one is the top portion of the document I crated and the other one is the bottom.So that you will enable to distinguish the two parts of the applications, both the header and footer.

In this application,I used to prepare the document template by setting up a margin using the page layout menu.For the margin,paper size,and the paper orientation of the template.I used to select the portrait under the Margin Menu of the Dialogue box(current window).And I used the paper size letter or the 8.5” x 11” or the short paper.So easy for you to identify the different applications I’ve been created.And I used a callouts pointing to the applications.

So lets talk it one by one.

1. Document Header- normally position on the top of the document.How to apply this in your document.Just follow this simple steps:
  • click insert menu
  • click header button( position of the left of the bar,name header and footer)
  • Select of the list of styles, ex:Austere odd page
  • now you will see header of the top of the document
  • then type your tag line or the insert a logo or name of the company if necessary
2. Document footer- normally position on the bottom of the document.How to apply this:
  • click insert menu
  • click footer button( position of the left of the bar,name header and footer)
  • Select of the list of styles, ex:Austere odd page
  • now you will see footer on the bottom of the document ]
  • then type your sentence or a short information or an address,email,and telephone number
3. Document title- I use to apply the borders both the top and bottom.How to apply:
  • highlight first the title(be sure to highlight exactly)
  • click Home menu
  • click the drop/down bar of the border button under the paragraph toolbar
  • then the bar will customize
  • click borders and shading position below
  • a dialogue box will appear
  • select you line style(be sure that you are using the tab menu button borders
  • apply thickness or width by clicking the drop down bar
  • then click the imaginary boxes both top and bottom under the preview on the right
  • click drop down bar and select paragraph
  • now click ok button
4. Apply paragraph columns- this application will apply on the entire paragraph of the document and how to apply this.
  • highlight first the entire paragraph(be sure to highlight exactly until only the last period of the last paragraph)
  • click page layout menu
  • click columns button under the page setup bar
  • click more columns
  • dialogue box will appear
  • select preset 3 or else(a box with imaginary line)
  • check box line between, if necessary you need
  • now click ok button
5. Page border- this is the border squared in the entire document template.How to apply this
  • click the drop/down bar of the border button under the paragraph toolbar
  • then the bar will customize
  • click borders and shading position below
  • a dialogue box will appear
  • click the page border tab menu button
  • select a line style or click the drop down bar of the art
  • select your style
  • then you will see it will apply automatically on the preview(right side)
  • be sure to apply in the whole document
  • click options button
  • another dialogue box will appear
  • set margin both top,bottom,left and right(this is used to fitted very well the page border on the document template so that it will not cut during printing)
  • then uncheck all the options below
  • click ok button
  • then click ok button of the dialogue box
6. Drop capital letter- this is the drop cap application commonly found at the first word of the first paragraph of a news paper or magazine.How to apply this:
  • highlight the first paragraph(be sure to highlight exactly)
  • click insert menu toolbar
  • click drop cap button under the text toolbar
  • click and select drop cap options
  • a dialogue box will appear
  • select a drop position or else(a box with an imaginary line)
  • select font style,ex: arial
  • set lines to drop,ex: 4
  • then distance from text,ex: .2”
  • click ok button
7. Insert clip Art or picture using from file- this is the application use to insert a picture or clip Art for your document:How to apply this and there are two ways:
  1. Using a clip art and how
  • click insert menu tool bar
  • click clip art button under the illustrations toolbar
  • then a right side bar will appear on your  window
  • and use the search for bar to find your clip art fitted to your document thought
  • click go button
  • the clip arts will appear on the bottom of right side bar base of the category you want
  • once you select and click, it will apply automatically in your document template
  • format your clip art by right clicking it
  • point to text wrapping
  • then select the wrapping style of your clip Art
  • then drag your clip clip if necessary to arrange it formally
     2. Using the from file button
  • click insert menu tool bar
  • click picture button under the illustrations toolbar
  • a destination windows or a source window will appear
  • use drop down bar of the look in, so that you will enable to open the drive where the picture stored,ex: in the picture folder under the my documents folder icon
  • then select and click you picture
  • then click insert button below
  • then it will apply it in document template
  • format your picture same as stated above

About the Desktop Basic Parts and Functions

About The Desktop
One of the most and important part of the computer Operating System is the Windows Desktop.Windows Desktop act as the most top of the hierarchy of the Operating System(OS).Meaning, this is the part of the windows where the user start to work or use any one of the program,ex: opening one of the program of the MS-office.

So, therefore this is the area of the screen where the user work .And Windows Desktop composed of small icons or pictures represents as shortcut of the  program.Therefore,using the computer as part of the most basic of the computer windows operation.Let’s talk about the part of the desktop.

1. Desktop Icons- these are the group of small pictures commonly located at the left portion of the desktop.The function of the windows desktop icons, act as a shortcut of the programs of the computer.Including the desktop folders,you can create a folder or store a files inside the folder or what we called Folder icons.

2. Desktop Background- this is the view of the desktop or commonly called as wallpaper once you installed your own favorite pictures.You can install a wallpaper by double clicking your own picture and right click on it then click set as desktop background.Or right click on the blank of the desktop, then click properties,select either desktop background or themes.
3. Mouse Cursor- act as the pointer of the desktop to select a program or selecting a computer command.
4. Start Button or Start Menu- this is the part of the desktop that commonly located at the bottom left of the windows desktop.And one of the part of the taskbar.Act as the opening button that you can customize a program to open.This will function to the windows key (the center of the CTRL and ALT key)of your keyboard once you press.
5. Quick Lunch- this is also an icons or small pictures same as desktop icons if installed in your taskbar.The difference between this two parts,you can open the quick lunch icons by single click of your mouse.But meanwhile, the desktop icons is double click.
6. Taskbar- this is located at the bottom of the windows desktop.That are composed of three parts,the start button,quick lunch,and the notification area.One of the function of the taskbar is to hide a running current programs of the computer.
7. Notification Area- located at the bottom right of the windows desktop taskbar.These are also a group of icons as shortcut of the program.The common icons in this part are, the virus scanner icon that if you right click on it you can update and run your virus scanner.And the date and time of your computer and the speaker icon.You can use this icon using the right click of your mouse.Example in updating your date and time.

Create Simple Payroll Using MS-Excel 2007

Simple Payroll Using MS-Excel 2007

Another simple application of MS-Excel 2007 is how to create a payroll worksheet with a complete description of logical formulas to calculate the worksheet data. Previously, I was posted how to create a worksheet table using the MS-Excel 2007, now it's just easy to create this table for this application called “simple payroll”. This is a simple operation using the logical operator. You need only the basic knowledge in using the MS-excel.

How To Perform AutoFill

Now, this worksheet composed of the worksheet title, worksheet table compose also a label with a complete list of data by using the columns individually. And I use the auto fill tab of the worksheet cell to generate the employee’s number.

Remember that this worksheet only is just an example or a worksheet practice table of my own. And this is not related to the worksheet title stated above.

Now,I put the different parts and the logical formula inside of the autoshape that I’ve been use.So, I will clarify individually so that you will understand very clearly how to make this simple worksheet.


1. Worksheet Title- this is just located above the worksheet,commonly type in the column A row 1.The most common application is the merge and center along the worksheet table area.Remember that if there are one or more than worksheet title or subtitle.You cannot merge and center it, if you highlight all the preceding data in different rows.Example if you highlight the A1 and A2 with both data of your worksheets it will not execute.A popup window will appear and it would says “The selection contains a multiple values.Merging into one cell well keep the upper-left most data only”.

How to merge and center?

highlight the worksheet title from the 1st column until to the last column used by your worksheet table.

click the merge and center command of your home menu toolbar

and you will see the worksheet title will moved to the center

2. Worksheet Label- next of the worksheet title,this the top of the worksheet table.These are the head of the column as its have a name individually.The most common application here is the wrap text along the columns and the row using the formatting cells dialogue box.

How to wrap text worksheet label

  • highlight the worksheet labels only
  • right click inside the highlighted portion
  • click format cells
  • a dialogue box will appear
  • click the alignment tab menu button
  • under the text alignment drop down bar, select center both the horizontal and vertical
  • then apply text control “wrap text” using the check box or click the check box
  • then click ok button

3. Logical formula how to get the withholding Tax(w/tax)- this is use to calculate the withholding tax versus the starting salary using the percentage symbol.see the image above,click it to enlarge.

= is the logical function(the computer will not execute without the equals symbol, asterisk is the logical operator, and the 12 percent or .12 is the logical condition

4. Logical formula how to get the total deduction- this is use to calculate the series of data to be added in the worksheet.Either you can use the two formula specified in the image above.Where:

=sum is the logical function name,e9 is the 1st ref.data,i9 is the last ref.data.You need to enclose the reference data and use colon to calculate from 1st ref. data up to last ref. data.Use other formula using the logical operator + by adding the preceding columns of data.See the image above,click it to enlarge.
5. Net Salary- this is use to find the take home pay of the employee using the logical operator minus –.this will minus to the starting versus the total deduction.See the image above,click it to enlarge.
6. Grand Total- use to find the total amount of the entire rows in single column of the worksheet.With compose of multiple data inside.See the image above,click it to enlarge.
7. Autofill Tab- located along the worksheet cell,position right side bottom.This is use to apply or execute automatically the preceeding data to be calculated using the drag of mouse(pointer)after highlighting the one or more data.See the image above,click it to enlarge.

Microsoft Office PowerPoint Parts Use and Functions

Microsoft PowerPoint Parts and Functions

Microsoft PowerPoint is simply defined as a presentation package and has an extension file of .ppt. Once you save it in your data storage or HDD. This is one of the most common uses of Microsoft automation. The term presentation package can be used by importing documents that came from word processing and worksheets. And either can be used to insert videos and music together with the images and sounds. And subject up for animations and effects using the different formats of the applications.

Indeed, Microsoft Corporation the developer of both the Windows Operating System and the MS-office developed and enhanced both programs. So, therefore, it has changed both the command buttons and applications, such as this version, the MS-PowerPoint 2007. Under its User Interface (UI) the arrangement of the command precisely well arranged and the group into its toolbar. So, there are changes in the location of its command buttons and toolbar from older versions of MS-Office 97, 2000 premium, XP, and 2003. Unfortunately, students and trainees even a hard user of MS-office confused about how to use this new version. So, this is the main purposed of this post. I will let you guide where are the parts of this new version MS-PowerPoint 2007.

  1. Standard buttons- found at the top under the title bar of MS-Powerpoint 2007, they are the saveundo and redo buttons.
  2. Home Menu Toolbar- located beneath the title bar, its a toolbar menu compose of a group of command buttons,namely:1. clipboard where the cut/ copy/paste located,2. Slides where the new slide, reset, delete, layout located,3.Font where the font style, font size font color, and another formatting of text located,4. The paragraph where the alignment, bullets, numbering, and indention of paragraph located,5. Drawing where the auto shapes and other formats of shaped, alignment, and fill color of object located, and 6. Editing where the find, replace, and select located.
  3. Insert Menu Toolbar- located next to the home menu, its a toolbar menu compose of a group of command buttons,namely:1. Tables where you can insert a table for your presentation,2. Illustration where you can insert your own picture, clipart, photo album, shapes, smart art, and chart,3. Links where you can link using the hyperlink or internet and put a hover action of your presentation,4. Text where you can insert a text box, header, and footer, word art, date and time, slide number, symbol and object,5. Media Clips where you can insert movies and sound for your presentation.
  4. Design Menu Toolbar- this is next to the insert menu, its a toolbar menu compose of a group of command buttons,namely:1. Page Setup where you can Page Setup, Orientation, and Margin,2. Themes where you can select a custom theme that will automatically apply once you hover your mouse on it, and 3. The background where you can apply background styles and hide the background graphics of your presentation templates(slides)
  5. Animation Menu Toolbar- located next to the design menu, its a toolbar menu compose of a group of command buttons,namely:1. Preview where you can preview your slide,2. Animations where you can apply motion and effect or custom animation, and 3.  The transition of this slide where you can apply continues to slide and setup time, sound, and speed for your slide presentation.
  6. Slide Show Menu Toolbar- next to the animation menu, its a toolbar menu compose of a group of command buttons,namely:1. Start slide show where you can start yours on mouse click and transition slide presentation,2. A setup where you can setup show, rehearse, and record narration, and 3. monitors where you can increase and decrease the resolution of the monitor screen, show presentation on, and use presenter view.
  7. Review Menu Toolbar- next to the slide show menu, its a toolbar menu compose of a group of command buttons,namely:1. Proofing where you can check your spelling, research, thesaurus, translate, and language,2. Comments where you can show mark up, new comment, edit the comment, delete, previous, and next of your presentation slide.
  8. View Menu Toolbar- located next to the review the menu, its a toolbar menu compose of a group of command buttons,namely:1. Presentation Views where you can set normal, slide sorter, note pages, slide show, slide master, handout master, and notes master,2. Show Hide where you can apply ruler, gridlines, and message bar,3. zoom where you can increase and decrease the size of your slide without using the zoom in/zoom out sliding bar of the bottom right,4. Color gray Scale where you can apply or change the color background of graphics/image/picture,5. A window where you can apply or set a new window, arrange all, cascade, and move split windows, and 6. Macros where you can use the macros presentation slide,
  9. Format Menu Toolbar- this is next of view menu, its a toolbar menu compose of a group of command buttons,namely:1. insert shapes where you can select/format auto shapes,2. shape styles where you can format or change the color, outline, effects, and fill color of the auto shapes,3. word art styles where you can change the style of the font using the word art format,4. arrange where you can arrange the auto shapes and font, and 5. Size where you can set up the size of the auto shapes and font area of the presentation slide.
  10. File Menu Button- it's just the logo of the Microsoft Corp., it's a rounded or circle form, position on the top left of the user interface. This is used as the file menu toolbar where you can save, new template, open, print and etc.
  11. Sorter Panel- located left side of the presentation template. This use to arrange or sort in order for the slide presentation.
  12. Status Bar- located below the left of the window. This is used to indicate the number of slides and will work on the vertical scroll bar.
  13. Presentation Slide- the big part of the windows, this is the presentation template where the slides located and perform the different slide applications.
  14. Zoom In Zoom Out Sliding Bar- located right side bottom of the window, this use to increase and decrease the size of the presentation slide without using the command button of a toolbar menu.
  15. Guide Bar or Note Bar- this use to apply a presentation slide note of the application package.



Microsoft Windows Movie Maker Keyboard Shortcuts and Application


In our computer program using the Microsoft Windows and office,mostly service pack two of Windows Operating System.Probably the windows xp has a built-in features of this most demanded movie application of our computer without downloading it in Microsoft Websites.Unlike the windows 7 OS you need to download the silver light for the movie maker.
Microsoft Windows Movie Maker is designed for the windows user to capture from your video camera,Web camera, or other video source, to your computer.And then use this captured contents in your movie applications.You can also import save videos from your drives, ex: from the USB flash drive or from your backup drive.So that it can be use for your movie applications.After editing the audio and video content in Windows Movie Maker, which can include adding titles, video transitions, or effects,and you can save it in your final movie applications.And share it to the internet movie sharing such as in YouTube and Facebook.

1. Keyboard shortcuts

For your convenient use for these applications I included the Shortcut keys for commands in Windows Movie Maker. By using this shortcut keys, you can quickly accomplish common tasks of this applications.

Here are the following tables for the complete use of your keyboard shortcuts.
Task Shortcut key
Create a new project CTRL+N
Open an existing project CTRL+O
Save a project CTRL+S
Save a project with a new name F12
Save a movie CTRL+P
Capture video CTRL+R
Import an existing digital media file CTRL+I
Undo the last action CTRL+Z
Redo the last undone action CTRL+Y
Paste CTRL+V
Select all clips CTRL+A
Rename a collection or clip F2
Clear the storyboard/timeline CTRL+DELETE
Show or hide the storyboard/timeline CTRL+T
Zoom in on the timeline PAGE DOWN
Zoom out on the timeline PAGE UP
Add selected clips to the storyboard/timeline CTRL+D
Play video in full screen ALT+ENTER
Set start trim point CTRL+SHIFT+I
Set end trim point CTRL+SHIFT+O
Clear trim points CTRL+SHIFT+DELETE
Split a clip CTRL+L
Combine contiguous clips CTRL+M
Nudges clip to the left CTRL+SHIFT+B
Nudges clip to the right CTRL+SHIFT+N
Play or pause clip SPACEBAR
Stop playback on the storyboard/timeline CTRL+K
Play content on the storyboard/timeline CTRL+W
Rewind content on the storyboard/timeline CTRL+Q
Previous frame ALT+LEFT ARROW
Display Help topics F1
Select previous item (on a timeline track, on the storyboard, or in the Contents pane) LEFT ARROW
Select next item (on a timeline track, on the storyboard, or in the Contents pane) RIGHT ARROW
Select item above (on a timeline track or in the Contents pane) UP ARROW
Select item below (on a timeline track or in the Contents pane) DOWN ARROW
Go to the first item (on a timeline track, on the storyboard, or in the Contents pane) HOME
Go to the last item (on a timeline track, on the storyboard, or in the Contents pane) END

2. Supported file types

Adding content directly to your Windows Movie Maker project either by capturing content directly in Windows Movie Maker or by importing existing digital media files. The content you capture in Windows Movie Maker is saved in Windows Media Format. However, you can also import existing Windows Media-based content as well as other common file formats.

You can import files with the following file name extensions into Windows Movie Maker to use in your project:
  • Audio files: .aif, .aifc, .aiff .asf, .au, .mp2, .mp3, .mpa, .snd, .wav, and .wma
  • Picture files: .bmp, .dib, .emf, .gif, .jfif, .jpe, .jpeg, .jpg, .png, .tif, .tiff, and .wmf
Video files: .asf, .avi, .m1v, .mp2, .mp2v, .mpe, .mpeg, .mpg, .mpv2, .wm, and .wmv
3. Steps How to Open the Windows Movie Maker
1. Click start button
2. Point to Programs
3. Click the customized icon with name Windows Movie Maker or Use the Icon of you Desktop
4. The Basic Parts and Functions
Note: See the picture of this post
1. Collections Pane- the collections pane will display the content once you click the collections button of the toolbar.And also It will displays a pane in the left bar.
2. Menu Bar- located underneath of the title bar.These are the drop down menu command of the application.You can use the command by clicking the menu.
3. Toolbar- this is underneath with the Menu toolbar.This is use for standard command buttons,such as new,save,open and undo command.
4. Task Pane- this is one of the menu command of the view menu.Once you click this task pane located below it will displayed on the left position of this window.
5. Video Timeline- this is located in the bottom of this window. 
The timeline displays the following tracks to indicate what types of files you have added to your current project.
The Video track lets you see what video clips, pictures, or titles you have added to the project. You can expand the Video track to show the corresponding audio accompanying the video, as well as any video transitions you have added. After a clip is added to the timeline, the name of the source file appears on that clip. If you add any video effects to the picture, video, or title, a small icon appears on the clips to indicate that a video effect has been added to that clip.
The Transition track lets you see any video transitions you have added to the timeline. This track only appears if you have expanded the Video track. Any video transitions you add from the Video Transitions folder appear on this track. When a transition is added to the timeline, the name of the transition is shown in the timeline. You can drag the start trim handle that appears when the transition is selected to increase or decrease its duration.
The Audio track lets you see the audio that is included in any video clips you have added to the project. Like the Transition track, you can only see the Audio track if you have expanded the Video track. If you select the audio clip on this track and delete it, the video portion is also removed from the Video track.
The Audio/Music track lets you see any audio clips that you have added to the project. The name of the audio clip appears on the clip.
You can also add video clips to this track if you want the audio, but not the video, to play in your project and final movie.
Title Overlay
The Title Overlay track lets you see any titles or credits that you have added to the timeline. You can add multiple titles to this track at different points in your movie. The titles overlay the video that is displayed. You can drag the start or end trim handle that appears when the title is selected to increase or decrease its duration.
6. StoryBoard- The storyboard is the default view in Windows Movie Maker. You can use the storyboard to look at the sequence or ordering of the clips in your project and easily rearrange them, if necessary. This view also lets you see any video effects or video transitions that have been added. You can also preview all of the clips in your current project. Audio clips that you have added to a project are not displayed on the storyboard; however, they are displayed in the timeline.
7. Monitor- Use the monitor to view individual clips or an entire project. By using the monitor, you can preview your project before saving it as a movie.
You can use the playback controls to navigate through an individual clip or an entire project. You can also use the buttons on the monitor to perform functions such as splitting a video or audio clip into two smaller clips or taking a picture of the current frame that is displayed in the monitor.


  • If you want more enhance application of Movie Maker you can download the new version of this program from the Microsoft, use this link:Windows Movie Maker 6.0
  • If you got any error during installation you can read how to fix right here in this page:How To Fix Windows Movie Maker

How to Create Worksheet's Table using Microsoft Excel 2007


One thing that we should know is how to create a worksheet table using the latest MS-Excel 2007 version.Although, we can perform logical calculation even if we don't create a borders of worksheets to form the worksheet table.It is depend to the requirements of the data,but it just very necessary to create the worksheet table.

Formatting Cells

Actually, other said that using the latest MS-Excel 2007 version is very difficult to use.But actually its just a matter of knowledge and familiarizing the User Interface(UI).But for me,this latest version is now simple.Compared to the old version, the MS-EXCEL 97 and 2003.

So, I will let you to learn and understand using this post.So that you can have your best idea and can be familiarized the routine of the menu toolbar and the dialogue box of the of the formatting cells.


1. Open your MS-Excel 2007 version
2. Once the windows open,determine how many rows and columns you need in your worksheets,ex: 17R x 30C.See the picture
3. But before you start to highlights,just type first the worksheet title.The worksheet title must be type in A1, so that you can align it using the merge and center of the worksheet.
4. Highlight the worksheet according to your specified size.Use the namebox to count the number of columns and rows displayed in name box once you drag your mouse.Practice this key combinations using the keyboard in highlighting your worksheet.
1. Position your worksheet cell below the worksheet title.
2. Start highlighting by holding shift key then press right arrow key to reach your number of columns you need.
3. Then press down arrow key to reach the number of rows you need in your worksheet.(Note: Hold always the shift key until you finish your highlight).
5. Once you finish highlight,you are ready to click the dialogue box for the border of the worksheet table.
6. Click the Home Menu Toolbar,then click the More borders under of the font toolbar.See the picture
7. Then click the more borders under the customized drop down menu toolbar.
8. Then a dialogue box will appear in your screen.(This is a current window,you can’t click other component rather than in this window)

See the formatting cells picture above.*

9. Click the border tab menu button
10. Select your line style
11. Click outline box and inside box under the presets
12. Click OK command button.
13. Now you will see the borders of your worksheet table.
14. Merge and center the worksheet title according to the size of your worksheet.


  • You cannot merge cell with multiple data, like for example the worksheet title from A1 to A2 it will join the two cell with one worksheet title.
  • You can't  delete a merge cell when other cell is also merge it will cluttered the entire worksheets.

Vertical Lookup and Horizontal Lookup Application of MS-Excel

Horizontal and Vertical Lookup Table
VERTICAL LOOKUP AND HORIZONTAL LOOK UP TABLE is one of the logical calculation of MS-Excel application of MS-office throughout the different versions.This is useful for creating a worksheets for monthly commissions of the salesman.

Now, in creating this worksheets you need to know what are the labels you need for your worksheets.So, therefore you can calculate how much the number of columns and rows you need in this application.Then create the border of the entire worksheets and align the worksheets label.Then input carefully the data by columns of the different labels.One of the most very sensitive is inputting or typing the different figures.Because this application base mostly of the figures found in this worksheets.To avoid this error,once you type the figures,do not put comma and dot using your keyboard.Use the formatting bar located at the top of your worksheets by highlighting your entire figures and click the comma or dot button.

Now, as what you see in the picture of this post,I have vertical lookup table and horizontal table for the need to comply this application.So before to begin the steps how to create this worksheets.Please just analyze first this logical formula.

1. For the vertical lookup formula, this is only an example:
The component of logical formula
1. =vlookup- this is the logical function name vertical lookup
2. c8- the reference data(c is the column header and 8 is the row header of the worksheets)
3. comm- name of the vertical table
4. 2- is the column index number(number of columns of the vertical table)
2. For the horizontal lookup formula, this is only an example:
The component of logical formula
1. =hlookup- this is the logical function name horizontal lookup
2. j8- the reference data
3. remarks- name of the horizontal table
4. 2- row index number
 Note: Use the open and close parenthesis to enclose the relative data and use comma to separate each.
Now here are the steps:
1. Create the worksheets table according to the requirements you need in your worksheets.
2. Input carefully the data according to its worksheets label(Be assure of the number of figures).
3. Create your vertical table(See the picture of this post).
4. Highlight the entire vertical table.
5. Click the namebox, then type the name of the table.Do not forget to press enter key to apply the name.
6. Now, you are ready to apply the logical formula of the vertical lookup by positioning the worksheet cell below of your worksheet label name commission by 5%.
7. Then press enter key once you finish typing the formula.
8. Then you will see the results, the results will defend what are the conditions  you give, ex: if sales is 0-45001 commission is 5%, if sales is 45001- 65001 commission is 10%, and if sales is 70000 above commission is 15%.
9. Then, use autofill tab of the worksheet cell of the proceeding data.By dragging your mouse using the black crosshair of the cursor of the worksheets.
10. Now, if you want to calculate the total commission.Just use this formula, ex: =c8*d8, then press enter key.Then use autofill tab of your worksheet cell to calculate the proceeding data.Note: the formula is just only an example,look at your reference data to calculate exactly.(see the picture above)
11. Then, now you are ready to calculate the gross pay by adding the total commission and net pay, here is the formula,ex: =e5+f5, then press enter key.
12. Now, create the horizontal lookup table by percentage.And below of it,type the logical conditions(see the picture above)
13. Then, click the name box again then type the name of the table, ex: Remarks, then press enter key.
14. Now, you are ready to input the formula of the remarks column of your worksheets.Position your worksheet cell below of the remarks label
15. Then, type the formula of the horizontal lookup(see the above of this post),then press enter key.
16. Now, you will see the logical quoted text base in your logical data conditions by percentage.
17. Then, use autofill tab, to calculate the proceeding data.

“That’s all again, just type in the comment bar if you have any question regarding our application”

Basic Parts and Functions of Notebook and Laptop Keyboard


Buy and owning one of the most common gadgets around us is very simple. If we have a budget and affordable in our pockets. Just like to own Personal Computer (PC) and to own one of the most common gadgets around us, the Notebook or Netbook Computers. These are most likely noticeable around in our environments. They said that PC would be replaced by portable computers in the near future. Because it is very easy to handle and could be used inside our house and also can be mobile outside our area. And most particular can be used in business meetings and surfing the internet inside a hotspot area or what we called WIFI or (Wireless Fidelity).

But to own a gadget or notebook, one of the very problems that would arise is how to use it. Not only in how to use the software operations.Both the Windows Operating Systems and the entire programs, including the internet applications of the computer. And the most very needed to learn and understand the parts and functions of the keyboardBecause this keyboard is used to input the different commands of the computer.

So, these are the purpose of this post. I will try to impart to you what I know of the keyboard of the computer. Most like on the keyboard part of the notebook computer or the netbook computer.

It was divided into four parts as you see in the picture of this post. So, here are the four major parts of the notebook computer.

1. Function Keys or the ALL F keys- these keys of the keyboard act as the primary shortcut keys of the computer to perform a certain function.Such as performing printing, buffering a command, saving files or settings, help menu or tutorial. Or could be combined with the other keys to function a certain command. Such as ALT + F4, will toggle the computer to auto closed the program and shut down the computer. These keys are labeled from F1-F12 and commonly found at the top of the computer keyboard.

2. Special Keys- they are Print Screen System Request or PrtScSysRq key, Pause BreakInsert, and Delete. Mostly found at the top right side of the function keys. Mostly act to perform special or logistical operations of the application program. Such as, how to print the current screen image of the computer or the Graphical User Interface(GUI) and to erase the right character of the documents using the del key. So, here are the steps how to print screen:
1. Open the program you want to print or simply your facebook account
2. Once the program open, press the prtScSysRq key twice to assure
3. Open your MS-Word
4. Once the MS-Word open, right click in the template
5. Click paste or hold CTRL then press V
3. Cursor Keys or Arrow keys- these keys act as the navigation or destination of the computer program. Usually found at the bottom right side of the keyboard of the notebook computer. The up, down, left, right arrow keys, and the special keys. The page up and page down and the function key(Fn)labeled with the color blue. They are:

Note: Labeled in blue keys, these are the Fn keys. This will function once you hold the Fn key located at the bottom right side of the notebook computer. 
1. Home- act as to move the cursor of the keyboard automatically to the beginning of the line of the paragraph of the document once it press.
2. End-  act as to move the cursor of the keyboard automatically to the end of the line of the paragraph of the document,once it press.
3. Increase and Decrease audio- labeled in blue with a logo of the speaker.This is use to increase/ decrease the audio of the notebook computer.This will function once you hold the Fn key and press the up/down arrow keys.
4. High Contrast and Low Contrast- labeled in blue with a logo of the sun.This use to increase and decrease brightness of the LCD or LED monitor of the notebook computer.This will function once you hold the Fn key and press the right/ left arrow keys.
The white-labeled page up and page down keys will toggle the computer program up/down of the page once you press.

4. Alphanumeric Character- the wide or the biggest part of the laptop or notebook and PC computer keyboard. Through the part name, these are the composition both upper case and lower case:
1. ALPHA- means alphabets, design or arranged through the name of the type writer inventor QWERTY.It is compose of 26 letters in national alphabets, from A-Z letters both upper case and lower case or big letter and small letter.
2. Numbers- these are the decimal numbers, from 1-0.Situated as lower case of the Alphanumeric Character.
3. Characters- these are the symbols and punctuations of the keyboard.Both uppercase and lower case functions.They are from left to right in series arrangements of the numbers found at the top and through the right side of the alphabets. 
1.) Tilde and Accent grave
2.) Exclamatory Point
3.) At sign
4.) Number Sign
5.) Dollar sign or currency
6.) Percentage symbol or the divide 100
7.) Caret
8.) And sign or the Amper Sand
9.) Asterisk or the Multiplication Operator
10.) Open Parent thesis
11.) Close Parent thesis
12.) Under score and dash
13.) Addition operator or plus sign and equal sign
14.) Backspace- that will erase the left character of the document
Right side of the Alphabets:
1.) Open Curly brackets and square brackets
2.) Close Curly brackets and square brackets
3.) Pipe bar or Vertical Bar and backslash
4.) Colon and semi colon
5.) Double quotation and single quotation
6.) Enter key or Ok
7.) Less than and comma
8.) Greater than and period or dot
9.) Question Mark and Forward Slash   
5. Special Keys of Alphanumeric Character- usually found at the left side- right side and through the bottom of the alphanumeric character keys.It has major functions and logistical operations of the program of computer. They are from top left to right down the bottom of the alphanumeric character:
1.) Tab key or indent key- act as the tabulator key of the computer program.Mostly act as the 1st indention of the paragraph of the document.And it is use to move the cursor of the keyboard through the Graphical User Interface(GUI),without using the mouse pointer.
2.) Caps lock- use for uppercase of the letters or Alphabets, ex: printed case of the document 
3.) Shift Keys- the two keys found from the left and right are use to perform the single uppercase of the document, ex: title case, name of person, place and animal.And use to partner another keys to perform certain functions.Such as to highlight selected line of the paragraph by holding shift key and press the end key, or cursor keys.
4.) CTRL or Control Keys- the two control keys found at the left/right bottom are use to function other keys to perform certain functions of the keyboard and mouse combination, particular in MS-Excel application in selecting the column of the worksheets.But there are 16 most common shortcuts of the keyboard using the control keys by holding it and press the letter.
2. CTRL + X= CUT
6. CTRL + N= NEW
10. CTRL + G= GOTO
12. CTRL + Y= REDO
15. CTRL + O= OPEN
16. CTRL + P= PRINT 
5.) Fn or Function key- these are the keys that will function in all labeled blue color logo,numbers,or symbols through- out the part of the keyboard.Preparedly, act as the third functions in both lower case and upper case of the keyboard.Such as the lower symbols of the ALL F keys and the numbers found at the alphabets.Position at the top/right side of the keys found in the right of the ALPHA keys. 
6.) Flying Windows Key or Windows Key- these one key found at the left bottom of the keyboard.That have a labeled logo of the Microsoft.Act as the start menu or start button of the Desktop,once it press without using the mouse pointer.This will customize the start button so that the user can select a program or move the cursor of the keyboard using the arrow keys via customize programs. 
7.) Alt or AltGr keys- these two alternate keys will partner to other keys to give certain command of the computer.Such as to command for the different symbols of the document using the ASCI(American Standard Code Industry).Preparedly combine to the numeric numbers of the numeric keypad.Such as to command the computer for the enye “ Ñ” both upper case and lower case. 
8.) Desktop Key- this single key usually found at the right side bottom of the keyboard.Act as the right click of the mouse cursor once it press.Or an auto command of the document template by displaying a pop up command window.Such as the cut,copy,paste command,select all,hyperlink,align,numbering, and bullets.